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Literature Review Analysis on WSN Clustering-Free-Thesis

WSN literature


  • Discusses the WSN clustering general issues
  • A literature review on WSN clustering is listed as original content
  • Few WSN algorithms are discussed with the relevant code download link

WSN Clustering Issues

Wireless sensor nodes are backed by the sensor’s energy limitation. To resolve the issue several methodologies for data transmission have been formulated. The energy consumption reduction process starts from the very first step of the WSN communication setup. That step is clustering. numerous works by researchers have been published for it. Maximum clustering algorithms by Asian researchers revolve around optimization algorithms for clustering of WSN.

Though the optimization is efficient, yet, its adaption to real-life applications is still a question. The deep learning algorithms require complex hardware due to optimization requirements in network training. Unfortunately, this complex hardware is not available in sensor nodes or if used, a massive battery would have been required. This would have limited their usage in that case. With so many algorithms for efficient clustering for better data transmission with lesser packet delay, packet drop and higher throughput. In this blog at, we have listed a few most cited papers on WSN clustering algorithms and presented an analytical analysis of those.

Table: Literature Review of research papers on WSN Clustering Algorithms

WSN Optimization Steps

1. Define the Problem

For every Optimization algorithm for WSN, it is of utmost importance to define the problem space in the first place. You can find the template for it at the link below which can be integrated with every optimization algorithm.

2. Identify the tuning variables

The optimization algorithm will ask for the searching space dimension. These are your actual problem variables that need to be tuned. For example: in optimal CH selection, the x-y Coordinates are the tuning variables. So if ‘N’ is nodes then the search space dimension would be 2*N.

N=10;                       % number of nodes
area=[10,10];              % nodes deployment area in meter
Trange=2;                   % transmission range of sensor node in meter
nodes.pos=area(1).*rand(N,2);% nodes geographical locations
nvars = 2*(N);  % search space dimension

3. Define the constraints

The Constraints are those which limit the updated tuning variables during the optimization process. For example, the CH selection problem has the number of nodes as the constraint. The selected CH should be within nodes.

4. Download the Free Hybrid Optimization Code

Once all necessary steps are taken care of, you can use any of the #free Optimization codes from to get the final optimized values.

Hybrid Grey Wolf and Cuckoo Search Optimization

Hybrid Particle Swarm and Grey Wolf Optimization

BAT Optimization Algorithm

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Reinforcement Learning In MATLAB

When we talk about deep learning, reinforcement learning is a much amazing branch of it. Without the use of any predefined database. It learns from the application environment and trains its agent to get the maximum rewards for the objective. It’s a trending thesis/research topic these days. Though its roots are buries since 1977 when Temporal difference learning was proposed. Later on, Markov Decision Process proved to be the nail in the modern Deep Reinforcement Learning. The usage of reinforcement learning can be understand by an example.


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Remembering the sacrifice of Freedom Fighters of India

Salute the real heros of india

India is celebrating its 74th Independence Day on 15th August. Independence Day is an annual observance day which is celebrated on every 15th August.   India celebrates Independence Day and remembers the sacrifices that our freedom fighters made during the struggle against the British Empire. 15th August is declared as the National and Gazetted holiday to celebrate the independence of our country from the British Empire.

On the fifteenth of August 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who turned out to be the first Prime Minister of Independent India. On that day of 1947, he raised the Indian national flag over the Lahori Gate at the Red Fort in Delhi. And after that, in a similar fashion, every year the national flag of India is hoisted from the same platform by the contemporary Prime Ministers of our country.

Mahatma Gandhi was the leader who guided India towards Independence. India was under the British rule for over 250 years. Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915 at the request of Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Gandhi’s contribution to the Indian freedom movement cannot be measured in words. He, along with other freedom fighters, compelled the British to leave India. His policies and agendas were non-violent and his words were the source of inspiration for millions.

Gandhi’s Salt March is considered to be a pivotal incident in the history of freedom struggle. At the Calcutta Congress of 1928, Gandhi declared that the British must grant India dominion status or the country will erupt into a revolution for complete independence. The British did not pay heed to this.

A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes

By Mahatma Gandhi

As a result, on December 31, 1929, the Indian flag was unfurled in Lahore and the next January 26 was celebrated as the Indian Independence Day. Then, Gandhi started a Satyagraha campaign against the salt tax in March 1930. He marched 388 kilometres from Ahmedabad to Dandi in Gujarat to make salt. Thousands of people joined him and made it one of the biggest marches in Indian history.

Many more freedom fighters were playing a crucial role in the history of independent India. Bhagat Singh was born on 28 September 1907 into a family that had been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj. This would go on to prove just how true he was to his name in the coming years. Bhagat means ‘bhakt’ or ‘devotee’. From an early age Bhagat was devoted to the cause of his motherland and her freedom.

The tragic death of Lala Lajpat Rai was  turning point in Bhagat Singh’s life. The independence movement was in full heat. The Simon Commission was set up to look into the state of Indian constitutional affairs. It left the Indian public outraged and insulted that the Commission which was to determine the future of India, did not include a single Indian member in it. Lala Lajpat Rai who was leading a non-violent protest against the Simon Commission when the Commission visited Lahore on 30 October 1928, got grievously injured when the police under orders from James A. Scott, lathi charged on the unsuspecting crowd. Lalaji died on 17 November 1928.

Singh vowed to take revenge for Lalaji’s murder and joined other revolutionaries, Shivaram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thapar and Chandrashekhar Azad, in a plot to kill Scott. However, in a case of mistaken identity Bhagat Singh and Rajguru shot Assistant Superintendent of Police John P. Saunders on 17 December 1928. 

Even after fighting so valiantly and sacrificing his life at the young age of 23 for the freedom of this country. Responding to an inquiry under the Right to Information Act the Home Ministry said that it possesses no record to prove that Bhagat Singh has been declared a martyr. There might be no record to prove him a martyr but that doesn’t take away from his greatness and try as we may we can never really forget the cries of “Inquilab Zindabad!”

Criticism and independent thinking are the two indispensable qualities of a revolutionary

By Bhagat singh

We should take a stand for what you believe in as per the Mahatma Gandhi protesting in independence of India. Another important lesson we can learn from our freedom fighters like Bhagat singh, Lala Lajpat rai, Chandarshekhar Azad, Subhash chandr Bose and Rani Luxmibai is their absolute believes in the power of team building and team work. It is a lovely and necessary thing to dream, and to dream big, and we would be wise to teach our children the same life lesson. The lesson to draw ultimately from our set of incredible freedom fighters is that plans they drew up in their lives, they had the courage, the will, the strength, and the sheer guts, to execute them. Our follows principle of freedom fighters like team work, action oriented and innovation in research ideas.   

Just like Independence Day is valued by other countries around the world, India also celebrates it with happiness and pomp. Come and be a part of this joy. You’re always welcome.