Maximal ratio Combining Scheme in OFDM for Hoyt fading Channel


Hoyt fading channel is more realistic satellite link channel. In this work, Performance of M-ary modulation scheme and MRC diversity receivers are analyzed over Hoyt fading channels. Focusing on the analytical approach, mathematical expressions for various performance measures such as outage probability and BER of diversity receivers have been obtained.

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In our work we have tested the hoyt fading channel performance in two different systems. One is M-ary PSK simulation and other is MRC diversity scheme in monte-carlo simulation for correlated hoyt fading channel. The motivation behind MPSK is to increase the bandwidth efficiency of the PSK modulation schemes. In BPSK, a data bit is represented by a symbol. In MPSK, n = log2 M data bits are represented by a symbol, thus the bandwidth efficiency is increased to n times. Among all MPSK schemes, QPSK is the most-often-used scheme since it does not suffer from BER degradation while the bandwidth efficiency is increased. Since the description about M-ary PSK modulation scheme is not so important to inherit in this chapter. So we have put that detail in appendix below.

Correlation among received fading signals cannot be avoided due to reasons discussed in [1, 2]. Analysis of diversity receivers for correlated channels is relatively more complicated compared to the independent fading case. In this section, performance of dual -MRC, receivers are analyzed for correlated Hoyt fading channels. For MRC receiver an analysis for unequal fading parameters is also presented in addition to the equal fading parameter case. Unequal channel fading parameters may be observed in urban fading environments where diversity channels may have different characteristics. In the analysis presented here the PDF based approach is used. Some conditions are followed for MRC simulation which are:

  1. We have N receive antennas and one transmit antenna.
  2. The channel is flat fading In simple terms, it means that the multipath channel has only one tap. So, the convolution operation reduces to a simple multiplication.
  3. The channel experienced by each receive antenna is randomly varying in time. For theith receive antenna, each transmitted symbol gets multiplied by a randomly varying complex numberhi. As the channel under consideration is a hoyt channel, the real and imaginary parts ofhi are Gaussian distributed having meanand variance.
  4. The channel experience by each receive antenna is independent from the channel experienced by other receive antennas.
  5. On each receive antenna, the noise has the Gaussian probability density function with

The noise on each receive antenna is independent from the noise on the other receive antennas.

  1. At each receive antenna, the channelhiis known at the receiver.
  2. In the presence of channelhi, the instantaneous bit energy to noise ratio atithreceive antenna is . For notational convenience, let us define,

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