# WSN Nodes Location Optimization

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This MATLAB code is written to optimally set the wireless sensor nodes’ locations to mitigate the coverage hole generated due to any energy depleted node. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used for this purpose. The objective is the maximum coverage area with available nodes. No constraint is used in this optimization.

This repository contains:

• MATLAB code for WSN nodes optimal positioning to cover the coverage hole.
Categories: , ,

## Description

Contents

```close all
clear
clc
warning('off')
```
```N=10;                       % number of nodes
area=[10,10];              % nodes deployment area in meter
Trange=2;                   % transmission range of sensor node in meter
nodes.pos=area(1).*rand(N,2);% nodes geographical locations
% redundantNo=9;               % number of healing nodes
redundantNo=round(10*N/100);
```

## plot the nodes deployment

```cnt=1;
for ii=1:N
for jj=1:N
if ii~=jj
nodes.distance(ii,jj)=pdist([nodes.pos(ii,:);nodes.pos(jj,:)]);
if nodes.distance(ii,jj)<Trange || nodes.distance(ii,jj)==Trange
nodes.inrange(ii,jj)=1;
else
nodes.inrange(ii,jj)=0;
end
end
end
end

figure
F5=plot(nodes.pos(:,1),nodes.pos(:,2),'.','color','r');
hold on
for ii=1:N                   % plot the circular transmission range
[nodes.circle.x(ii,:),nodes.circle.y(ii,:)]=circle(nodes.pos(ii,1),nodes.pos(ii,2),Trange);
F6=fill(nodes.circle.x(ii,:),nodes.circle.y(ii,:),[0.25,0.25,0.25]);
alpha 0.3
hold on
end
axis on
xlabel('x(m)')
ylabel('y(m)')
title('Initial Placement of Nodes with circular transmission range')
```

## plot Delaunay triangle

```TRI = delaunay(nodes.pos(:,1),nodes.pos(:,2));
figure(2)
F5 = plot(nodes.pos(:,1),nodes.pos(:,2),'.','color','r');```
```hold on
for ii=1:N                   % plot the circular transmission range
[nodes.circle.x(ii,:),nodes.circle.y(ii,:)]=circle(nodes.pos(ii,1),nodes.pos(ii,2),Trange);
F6=fill(nodes.circle.x(ii,:),nodes.circle.y(ii,:),[0.25,0.25,0.25]);
alpha 0.3
hold on
end
axis on
xlabel('x(m)')
ylabel('y(m)')
title('Coverage hole in initila position of Nodes')
hold on
triplot(TRI,nodes.pos(:,1),nodes.pos(:,2))
```

## Hole detection

```[holeDetected.circle,Circmcenter.circle,circumradius.circle]=holeDetection(TRI,nodes,F5,F6,Trange,area,2,1);
display(['--> No of detected Holes for Circular = ',num2str(numel(find(holeDetected.circle)))])
```
```--> No of detected Holes for Circular = 2
```

## PSO optimize the position of the rest wsn nodes to cover the hole

```nvars = 2*(N);
fun=@(x)objf(x,Trange,area);
lb=zeros(nvars,1);
ub=area(1).*ones(nvars,1);
options = optimoptions(@particleswarm,'Display','iter','MaxIterations',100,'PlotFcn','pswplotbestf');
[x,fval] = particleswarm(fun,nvars,lb,ub,options);
finalPos = reshape(x,[numel(x)/2,2]);
% plot the final tuned Node' pos
figure
plot(finalPos(:,1),finalPos(:,2),'o','color','r');
hold on
for ii=1:N                 % plot the circular transmission range
[finalcircle.x(ii,:),finalcircle.y(ii,:)]=circle(finalPos(ii,1),finalPos(ii,2),Trange);
fill(finalcircle.x(ii,:),finalcircle.y(ii,:),[0.25,0.25,0.25]);
alpha 0.3
hold on
end
axis on
xlabel('x(m)')
ylabel('y(m)')
title('Optimized location of Nodes with circular transmission range')
```
```                                 Best            Mean     Stall
Iteration     f-count            f(x)            f(x)    Iterations
0             100           1.205           1.554        0
1             200           1.205            2.49        0
2             300           1.205           1.658        1
3             400           1.205           1.812        2
4             500           1.205           1.651        3
5             600           1.205           1.696        4
6             700           1.205           1.644        5
7             800           1.205            1.54        6
8             900           1.205           1.454        0
9            1000           1.205           1.434        1
10            1100           1.174           1.406        0
11            1200           1.157           1.367        0
12            1300           1.136           1.347        0
13            1400            1.13            1.33        0
14            1500           1.121           1.303        0
15            1600           1.117           1.279        0
16            1700           1.101           1.266        0
17            1800           1.097           1.243        0
18            1900           1.093            1.25        0
19            2000           1.093           1.288        1
20            2100           1.093           1.277        2
21            2200           1.093           1.322        3
22            2300           1.093           1.338        4
23            2400           1.093           1.341        5
24            2500           1.093           1.369        6
25            2600           1.093           1.312        7
26            2700           1.093           1.251        8
27            2800           1.085           1.217        0
28            2900           1.084            1.19        0
29            3000           1.068           1.173        0
30            3100           1.064           1.146        0

Best            Mean     Stall
Iteration     f-count            f(x)            f(x)    Iterations
31            3200           1.056           1.125        0
32            3300           1.051           1.117        0
33            3400           1.046           1.099        0
34            3500           1.043           1.087        0
35            3600            1.04           1.083        0
36            3700            1.04           1.084        0
37            3800           1.034           1.085        0
38            3900           1.034           1.089        1
39            4000           1.031           1.093        0
40            4100           1.031           1.108        0
41            4200           1.031           1.122        1
42            4300           1.031           1.128        2
43            4400           1.031           1.149        3
44            4500           1.031           1.167        4
45            4600           1.031           1.185        5
46            4700           1.031           1.207        6
47            4800           1.031           1.144        7
48            4900           1.031           1.107        8
49            5000           1.031           1.084        0
50            5100           1.029           1.066        0
51            5200           1.028           1.057        0
52            5300           1.027           1.054        0
53            5400           1.024           1.048        0
54            5500           1.021           1.044        0
55            5600           1.021           1.038        0
56            5700           1.019           1.037        0
57            5800           1.019           1.037        1
58            5900           1.019           1.037        2
59            6000           1.019           1.036        0
60            6100           1.019           1.039        1

Best            Mean     Stall
Iteration     f-count            f(x)            f(x)    Iterations
61            6200           1.019           1.042        2
62            6300           1.019           1.044        3
63            6400           1.019           1.059        4
64            6500           1.019           1.055        5
65            6600           1.019           1.047        0
66            6700           1.019           1.045        1
67            6800           1.019           1.038        2
68            6900           1.018           1.034        0
69            7000           1.018           1.028        1
70            7100           1.018           1.027        2
71            7200           1.017           1.029        0
72            7300           1.017           1.028        1
73            7400           1.017           1.027        2
74            7500           1.017           1.026        3
75            7600           1.017           1.026        0
76            7700           1.017           1.028        1
77            7800           1.017           1.027        2
78            7900           1.017           1.029        3
79            8000           1.017           1.026        4
80            8100           1.017           1.025        5
81            8200           1.017           1.026        6
82            8300           1.017           1.027        7
83            8400           1.017           1.026        0
84            8500           1.017           1.024        1
85            8600           1.017           1.024        2
86            8700           1.017           1.026        3
87            8800           1.017           1.027        4
88            8900           1.017           1.024        5
89            9000           1.017           1.026        6
90            9100           1.017           1.026        7

Best            Mean     Stall
Iteration     f-count            f(x)            f(x)    Iterations
91            9200           1.017           1.026        8
92            9300           1.017           1.026        9
93            9400           1.017           1.026       10
94            9500           1.017           1.025        0
95            9600           1.017           1.026        1
96            9700           1.017           1.026        2
97            9800           1.017           1.024        3
98            9900           1.017           1.024        4
99           10000           1.017           1.025        5
100           10100           1.017           1.025        6
Optimization ended: number of iterations exceeded OPTIONS.MaxIterations.
```

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